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“金牌司机”助力 风云三号E星“稳稳”服务全球

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2021-07-05 17:50:42

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https://img-u-3.51miz.com/Photo/2017/05/23/01/P879106_82a4907202259b385247e0e212b43ac9.jpg?14096

  

中国互联网协会“中国数字化社会论坛”创立

  中新网上海7月5日电 题:“金牌司机”助力 风云三号E星“稳稳”服务全球

  编辑 郑莹莹 陈溯 马帅莎

  长征四号丙运载火箭5日成功发射“黎明星”风云三号E星。该星是世界业务气象卫星家族中的首颗晨昏轨道卫星。中国航天科技集团八院控制所承担着风云三号系列气象卫星姿轨控分系统及部分单机产品的研制工作,更为此次的E星平台打造了一名“金牌司机”。

  “调皮”的乘客也不怕 旋转摆动都能稳

  作为一颗晨昏轨道气象卫星,风云三号E星始终运行在地球的晨昏线上,并通过星上载荷——各种仪器设备对地球进行气象观测。姿轨控分系统就好比卫星的司机,要稳定地驾驶卫星运行在任务轨道上;载荷则好比乘客,用相机不停地对地球进行拍照,因此需要卫星运行地足够稳。

  但不同载荷有不同的工作方式,有的保持静止推扫成像,有的做左右摆动扫描,还有的则会做往复旋转运动,这些不同频率的运动都会影响卫星的姿态。此外,姿轨控分系统的测量单机和实行机构,如红外地平仪、高速旋转的偏置动量轮等,在工作时也会对卫星姿态产生一定影响。

风云三号E星研制场景 陈俊 摄
风云三号E星研制场景 陈俊 摄

  据了解,风云三号E星安装有10余种有效载荷,活动部件多达32个,是目前所有风云卫星里活动部件最多的,这对卫星平台的高稳定度控制是极大挑战。

  “如此多的活动部件,不仅会对卫星姿态控制产生干扰,还很容易激发太阳电池阵的挠性振动。这就好比乘客是一群调皮好动的孩子,他们在卫星上又蹦又跳,不停转圈,偶尔还拽拽司机的胳膊,非常考验司机的驾驶水平。”姿轨控主任设计师刘刚说。

  为此,风云三号E星姿轨控分系统在继承风云三号D星主体技术方案的基础上,采用了稳态偏置动量三轴轮控的主动控制,以长期保持稳定的三轴对地定向姿态。同时,采用双星敏感器姿态确定方案,并改进了控制算法,加入了参数自适应调整功能,进一步提高姿态确定和姿态控制精度的同时,还要规避太阳电池阵的挠性振动,使卫星能够始终保持较高的姿态稳定度。

  1字节数据也不能丢 对地对月都要精准

  肩负着“服务全球”的使命,风云三号E星需要长期对全球进行连续观测,探测数据全球共享,1字节数据也不能丢,这就要求卫星要连续稳定可靠地运行。风云三号E星副总设计师尹海宁说道:“相比于D星,E星的软硬件均进行了升级换代,如硬件采用了先进的光纤陀螺、最新的中国国产APS星敏感器等,App则历经6次迭代升级,产品的硬件可靠性和App强壮性均得到大幅提升,有助于地面定位精度提高至少4倍。

  风云三号E星首次搭载了先进的风场测量雷达,将对风场进行直接测量。这个全新的载荷产品也对姿轨控分系统提出了全新的要求。风场测量雷达工作时需要快速旋转,产生的朝地心方向的角动量会使在轨道运行的卫星受到较大的陀螺力矩,这将导致卫星不能精准指向地球,严重影响对地观测。

  “为了消除这个影响,大家研制了风场测量雷达动量补偿子系统。通过配置补偿飞轮及相应控制算法设计,实现了对风场测量雷达起旋、稳态工作、减速时产生的角动量的实时精确补偿。”尹海宁先容。

  在精准对地定向的同时,风云三号E星姿轨控分系统还可以通过俯仰轴机动实现大于5分钟的对月高精度指向与跟踪,来实现载荷对月定标需要。(完)

【编辑:叶攀】


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