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郑永年:面对政治谎言,需要回归事实科学与理性

发表时间: 2021-09-28 07:09:04 近日浏览量: 74539
青冈县有小姑娘的地方|找女人电话,【葳芯⑧7зз⒍②⑴1_綩儿】大保健·大学生·品茶·上门·服务·特殊·宾馆·酒店·休闲会所·模特·按摩.附近人【葳芯⑧7зз⒍②⑴1_綩儿】  实践中,CFIUS倾向于对来自与美国关系密切的国家(如澳大利亚、英国或加拿大)的投资者实施较为宽松的审查,而对来自中国、俄罗斯或者中东国家的投资者通常会进行更仔细的调查。

  中新社乌镇9月27日电 (刘亮 刘育英)香港中文大学(深圳)全球与当代中国高等研究院院长郑永年日前在参加中新社主办的“2021年世界互联网大会乌镇峰会——全球抗疫与国际传播论坛”时直言,中美关系是美国内部问题的“牺牲品”,谈及如何应对美国政界的谎言,他强调要回归事实、回归科学、回归理性。

  郑永年指出,尽管当前西方政治谎言备受讨论,但从西方政治思想发展脉络看,西方的民主理想并非如此。如古希腊作品和哲学家强调政治对人的重要性,认为政治是最能发挥人的权利的地方;再如,在中世纪,宗教真理是衡量一切的标准,而文艺复兴运动把世界的重心从宗教转移到人类本身,到18世纪的启蒙运动将政治理性推至极点,此后人们普遍相信理性政治的力量等。

  在他看来,政治谎言在现代西方尤其美国如此盛行,主要有以下多方面的因素。

  一是西方政治里面,民主政治的谎言本身有牢固的学问传统,如宗教黑暗时代结束以后,宗教谎言的传统并没有结束。近代理性主义崛起,但近代也创造了所谓的马基雅维利传统,即强调所谓目标证明手段正确。

  二是西方关于“理性人”的假设不成立。他称,从经验看,无论是英国的“脱欧”还是美国“川普主义”的崛起,大众一旦受政治人物的操作,就会变得非常不理性。

  三是技术条件的变化。在“人人都有话筒”的大众传媒时代,西方民主的“一人一票”就产生了无穷的力量,使得这些谣言能快速传播。

  四是西方社会越发不公平导致民众收入财富差距加大,成为西方民粹主义崛起的诱因。以美国为例,20世纪40年代至今,美国中产阶层比例一直在萎缩。

  五是将民主主义的意识形态变成了宗教信仰,意识形态也因此成为谎言的根源和论证谎言的根据。现实即“美国政治人物相信,为了民主自由,说什么样的谎言都可以”。

  六是精英阶层的衰弱遇到美国民粹主义崛起,二者结合起来能创造“最坏的结局”,这是精英衰弱的结果。

  在郑永年看来,西方与美国的内部问题很多,中美关系实际上是美国内部问题的“牺牲品”。谈及如何应对美国政界的谎言,他认为,尽管美国的谎言很多,但面对谎言需要“三个回归”:回归事实、回归科学、回归理性。(完)

【编辑:王祎】
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