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送上太空的“神秘”种子,究竟如何“变身”?

澳新州洪水达1961年来最高水位城市一片汪洋 2021-06-29 16:50:40 资讯 81477℃

新泰附近那个酒吧可以叫酒吧妹出来过夜做服务,【+Q:★112O.23Ч8★】姑·娘·全·天·安·排-18-至40岁任挑【+Q:★112O.23Ч8★】祝您开心不指一次√√√  3月20日俄罗斯-兰州CA910航班118名入境人员中,今日有1名无症状感染者转为确诊病例。目前,该航班累计确诊病例4人,在省级定点医院住院隔离治疗;无症状感染者1人,在省级定点医院隔离医学观察;其余113人在集中隔离点集中隔离医学观察。上述所有入境人员均在闭环管理中。

  送上太空的“神秘”种子,究竟如何“变身”?

  本报记者 马爱平

  6月28日,是3名航天员搭乘神舟十二号出征,进驻空间站核心舱的第11天。除了航天员,此次出征还有一些“神秘”的种子——兰花、黄精……

  重视耕种的中国人,一直在探索太空种植的奥妙。从1987年起,科学家们带过多种种子进入太空,包括水稻、玉米、小麦、红景天、铁皮石斛、五味子等。

  “我国自1987年首次开展水稻等农作物种子返回式卫星空间搭载至今已有34年,研究实践反复证明,航天搭载的空间诱变技术是创制农作物新种质,创建新基因和培育新品种的有效技术途径。”中国农业大学草业科学与技术学院教授张蕴薇在接受科技日报记者采访时说。

  航天诱变+选育技术,创制新种质选育新品种

  航天育种也称航天诱变育种或空间诱变育种,是通过返回式卫星等航天器将动植物微生物种质带到地外空间,诱导其发生突变和变异,返回后在地面选育成新品种的育种技术。

  “我国是诱变育种大国,传统的物理化学诱变研究和应用比较成熟,是相对安全高效率的育种技术,航天诱变是以宇宙重离子辐射诱变为主的诱变,是现代的诱变源,结合成熟的选育技术,有利于创制新种质选育新品种。”张蕴薇说。

  我国是农业大国,但品种的丰富性还远远落后于生产需求,振兴民族种业需要有更多更高效的育种技术。

  “几乎每次航天器发射都有搭载种子,此次神舟十二号也有搭载,航天搭载的多为对生产生活具有重要意义的物种,为的是通过航天搭载创造突变,返地后筛选有益突变,选育新品种。”张蕴薇先容,我国先后搭载过水稻、玉米、小麦等粮食作物种子,红景天、铁皮石斛、五味子、防风、甘草、红花等中草药种子,紫花苜蓿、新麦草、胡枝子、红豆草、柳枝稷、杂交狼尾草、白三叶等牧草种子,茄子、南瓜、辣椒、豇豆、白菜等蔬菜种子,串串红、红莲、牵牛等花卉种子,红豆杉等树木种子。

  培育出省级以上审定的优异种质新品种近200个

  自2009年起,科技部批准建设的国家植物航天育种工程技术研究中心和中国农业科学院设立的航天育种研究中心,在航天诱变机理,航天诱变新种质资源创制、评价和利用,新品质及配套工程化技术和产业化等领域积极有序开展工作。

  2018年,由中国农业科学院、中国农业大学等14家单位发起成立了航天育种产业创新联盟,旨在提升航天育种种质创新,促进航天育种技术成果转化、推动其产业化发展。

  目前至少有130余个研究单位参与搭载和航天育种,其在甘肃北京海南等地建立了航天育种育繁推基地。

  “截至2018年,利用航天诱变育种技术育出了42个省级和国家水稻品种。其中,2006年的实践八号育种卫星是最大规模的搭载,包含了粮、棉、油、蔬菜、林果花卉等9大类2000余份约215公斤农作物种子和菌种。航天育种已培育出省级以上审定的优异种质新品种近200个,例如,实践八号、嫦娥五号等多次航天器发射均搭载了水稻种子,后创制了一批水稻优质三系及矮杆等种质。”张蕴薇说。(科技日报北京6月28日电)

【编辑:张楷欣】

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