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稳稳落地,航天员归来的“高科技大招”

发表时间: 2021-09-19 19:28:47 近日浏览量: 74955
安庆市周边哪里有做服务的地方,【葳芯⑧⑵②⑶②⒈⑵7_啊薅】大学生·多少钱·一晚·特殊·一次·宾馆·酒店·服务·护士·包夜·少妇·【葳芯⑧⑵②⑶②⒈⑵7_啊薅】  王毅表示,最近美国在南海不断挑事:一是违背多年来不选边站队的承诺,公然介入南海领土主权争议。二是不断加大和炫耀在南海军事存在,仅今年上半年美国军机在南海的活动就多达2000多次。三是大肆挑拨中国与东盟国家关系,干扰“南海行为准则”的磋商进程。美方的目的就是要把南海搞乱,把地区国家绑上美国战车,从而服务于其国内政治和地缘战略。地区国家都要提高警觉,不能让美方肆意破坏来之不易的和平与发展成果。

  稳稳落地,航天员归来的“高科技大招”

  2021年9月17日,神舟十二号载人飞船搭载3名航天员从中国空间站荣耀归来,稳稳降落在甘肃酒泉东风着陆场,圆满完成了载人飞行天地往返任务。

  那么,本次太空载人返回都有哪些“高科技大招”呢?记者邀请航天科技集团五院(以下简称“航天五院”)的专家来为大家盘点。

  返回前有个“热身”动作

  当3名航天员关好核心舱舱门,进入神舟十二号载人飞船后,飞船就开始与空间站天和核心舱分离,并在返回前开始“热身”动作:从前向对接口分离后,飞船沿着设计好的弧线绕飞至后向对接口,稍做停留再次绕飞至径向对接口,为后续神舟十三号载人飞船与天和核心舱的径向交会对接进行全面技术验证。据神舟十二号载人飞船系统总体主管设计师彭华康先容,此次“热身”是飞船自动测量与空间站的相对位置、姿态和角度,自主判断并飞行。

  返回轨道“丝毫不差”

  神舟十二号载人飞船总体飞控负责人杨海峰表示,返回舱必须以固定的再入角进入大气,“如果再入角太大,就会导致返回舱外部温度过高;再入角太小,又会直接飞出大气层”。为此,飞船轨道设计团队在返回轨道设计方案中加入了预测校正制导方法,帮助返回舱在再入过程中根据实时位置、气动参数、瞄准点偏差等自主计算并维持再入轨迹,以适应落点的变化以及轨道变化范围大的特点,保证返回轨道“丝毫不差”。

  选择一个舒适的姿势回家

  返回舱是上窄下宽的钟形设计,在推进舱和返回舱分离以后,返回舱会利用自身装配的发动机调整姿态,变成大底朝前的飞行状态。“这样一来,返回舱在穿越大气层时就会产生升力,能够对飞行轨迹进行一定的控制,从而保证落点准确度更高,对航天员的过载冲击更小。”据杨海峰先容,不仅返回舱要采用舒适的返回姿势,航天员也要以几乎与大底平行的角度“平躺”在座椅中——“选择这样的姿势返回是为了更好缓解飞船减速过程中形成的冲击,从而给自身带来更多保护”。

  “防热外套”让航天员安全无忧

  返回舱从400公里左右的太空轨道进入大气层后,会以每秒数千米的速度与大气层发生摩擦,形成上千度的高温,就像一个熊熊燃烧的火球冲向地面。为了保证返回舱内部始终保持合适的温度,航天五院结构与机构研制团队持续攻关,为载人飞船返回舱研制出特殊的防热材料。神舟十二号载人飞船机械总体主任设计师刘晓震将其形象地称为“防热外套”,即通过表面耐烧蚀材料在熔化、蒸发和分解时带走大量热能,阻隔高温传导进入舱内,保证舱内空气温度维持在20摄氏度左右。“虽然只有薄薄的一层,却是保护航天员生命安全的‘防火墙’。”刘晓震强调。

  安全着陆要打一套“组合拳”

  舱体距离地面10公里左右时,飞船的速度已经降到每秒330米以下,这时返回舱上的静压高度控制器通过测量大气压力自动判定所处高度并开伞减速,将返回舱速度逐步降到每秒7米左右。可是,如果以这样的速度直接撞击地面,还是无法保障航天员的绝对安全,怎么办?航天五院载人飞船研制团队设计了一套“组合拳”,让返回舱在距离地面1米时悬空急停,利用返回舱反推发动机的反向力量进一步减缓降落速度,同时通过返回舱底部的由吸能外壳、减震材料和座椅缓冲机构组成的减震系统进一步吸取能量,从而保证航天员绝对安全着陆。

  (本报北京9月17日电 本报记者 张蕾 本报通讯员 张宇)

【编辑:朱延静】
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