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“再添一子” 盘点中国风云卫星家族如何跻身世界队伍

  2021-07-06 01:33:21

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  中新网上海7月5日电 题:“再添一子” 盘点中国风云卫星家族如何跻身世界队伍

  编辑 郑莹莹 郭超凯 马帅莎

  “黎明星”风云三号E星5日在酒泉卫星发射中心发射成功。风云三号E星是继风云一号后中国第二代低轨气象系列卫星——风云三号系列的第5颗卫星,由中国航天科技集团有限企业第八研究院抓总研制,为风云卫星家族首颗晨昏轨道卫星,也是世界业务气象卫星家族中首颗民用晨昏轨道卫星。

  何为低轨气象卫星?

  气象卫星是对大气层进行气象观测的人造卫星,具有观测范围大、时效快、连续完整等特点。通过携带各类遥感仪器,气象卫星可把云图等气象信息及时发给地面用户。

  低轨气象卫星通常指太阳同步轨道气象卫星,轨道高度较低(地球上空800公里左右),围绕地球南北两极运行,运行周期约100分钟。中国的风云一号、风云三号系列均为低轨气象卫星,其优点是能够实现全球覆盖,用于观测天气变化的细节。中国风云二号和风云四号属于地球静止轨道气象卫星,轨道高度36000公里,相对地球静止不动,可以获取中国所在区域的连续动态观测数据。两种卫星数据共同使用,可完成对全球天气的近期和远期预报。

  中国是世界上少数几个同时拥有低轨和静止轨道气象卫星的国家。经过50余年的发展,中国已成功发射风云系列两代四型共19颗气象卫星。

风云三号E星研制场景 陈俊 摄
风云三号E星研制场景 陈俊 摄

  低轨气象卫星“成长史”

  早在上世纪60年代,中国就已初步着手开展低轨气象卫星的准备工作。

  风云一号气象卫星是中国最先研制和发射的对地遥感应用卫星,共计2个批次4颗。

  风云三号气象卫星中国第二代低轨气象卫星,共分为3个批次。此次发射的E星是继01、02批4颗卫星后03批的首颗卫星,也是全球首颗民用晨昏轨道气象卫星。

  为满足数值天气预报业务对气象卫星提出的新要求,风云三号在遥感能力上实现了从单一遥感成像到地球环境综合探测、从光学遥感到微波遥感、从二维成像到三维定量探测、从公里级分辨率到百米级分辨率、从国内接收到极地接收四大技术突破;遥感仪器数量一跃增加到11个,仪器性能指标部分超过欧美在轨业务卫星水平,标志着中国气象卫星事业发展进入到了崭新的历史阶段。

  加入全球观测队伍

  除了服务于数值天气预报以外,低轨气象卫星在森林大火、台风、暴雨、沙尘暴、大雾、干旱、洪涝、雪灾等方面均有应用。比如,2020年7月,受持续强降水和上游来水共同影响,鄱阳湖主体及附近水域面积迅速增大,利用风云三号D星,中国清晰监测到鄱阳湖主体及附近水域的近一个月水体变化情况。

  50多年来,中国低轨气象卫星经历了从试验到业务、从单一仪器观测到多载荷仪器综合观测、从定性获取资料到定量获取资料、从观测到兼有通信、从单星到双星系统、从单独工作到组网运行等发展过程,在观测技术、业务化和应用等领域均取得了长足的进步。

  如今,风云气象卫星已被世界气象组织纳入全球业务应用气象卫星序列,成为全球综合地球观测系统的重要成员及国际灾害宪章机制的值班卫星。下一个十年,风云卫星将进一步发展星地一体化智慧协同观测技术,建立起支撑精细预报的“智慧观测”业务系统,为保卫国家人民财产安全不断贡献力量。(完)

【编辑:叶攀】

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