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天舟三号“货运专列”:隔热防雨又抗风

发表时间: 2021-09-28 06:18:12 近日浏览量: 16657
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  天舟三号“货运专列”:隔热防雨又抗风

  9月20日,长征七号遥四运载火箭在中国文昌航天发射场,托举天舟三号货运飞船驶入太空,成功将其送入预定轨道,中国“天宫”空间站迎来新的访客。

  航天员要在空间站长期驻守,吃、穿、用乃至呼吸所需的物资,空间站维持正确轨道所需的燃料都要靠货运飞船运送。为了保障“太空快递”在运输过程中的安全,中国航天科技集团一院研制人员特别将火箭打造成防热、防雨、防风的“货运专车”。

  “防热服”

  据中国航天科技集团一院长征七号遥四运载火箭结构设计师姚瑞娟先容,火箭飞行过程中,芯级发动机会喷出炽热的火焰,此时,助推器后过渡段要承受喷焰回卷的强热流,其热防护设计如果不够就会造成结构烧蚀,而过度设计又会影响火箭的运载能力。

  姚瑞娟说,于是,设计师们创新防热材料应用和安装方式,将像“开衫”一样的特制防热毛毡“披”在火箭助推器上,不仅重量更轻,而且防热效率也更高。

  她告诉记者,如果采用传统方法,在助推器后过渡段喷涂防热涂层,生产周期较长。于是,设计人员创新思路,将防热服由“喷”在后过渡段的表面变为“披”在身上。

  设计人员采用耐高温的材料,给助推器做了一块柔性防热毛毡。它有“里”、有“面”、有夹层,从靠近芯级的一侧开始“披”上,在远离芯级的外侧开口,就像一件“开衫”一样包裹助推器,使后过渡段免受大火“烤”验。

  姚瑞娟说,采用传统的防热方式,在助推器上整体喷涂防热涂层,重量在70公斤至100公斤之间,而新型防热毛毡重量只有20公斤左右,重量减轻约75%,且防热效果更好。柔性防热毛毡已在长征七号火箭上成功应用,后续还将推广应用于其他型号。

  “防雨衣”

  新一代运载火箭发射场气候潮湿,降水量大,全年12小时内降水5至15毫米的中雨较多。中国航天科技集团一院总体部设计人员卢松涛说,现役火箭发射选择窗口时,都会避开雷雨天,而长征七号火箭则能实现中雨发射,这是因为新一代运载火箭做了“防水”设计。

  其实,火箭防水不仅仅是防雨水。看过火箭发射的人都见过加注后的火箭,受低温推进剂的影响,箭体表面的温度低,冷凝水像下雨一样顺着箭体流下来,这也是火箭要防的水。除此之外,箭壁、管路上的冷凝水还可能结冰,冰融化又会形成冰霜融化水等。

  火箭如何防水?卢松涛说,在防水设计中,研制人员遵循“能在单机解决的,不在系统解决,能在系统解决的,不在总体解决”原则,从“产品源头”解决防水问题。

  在新一代运载火箭设计之初,防水功能尽量通过结构设计实现。卢松涛称,长征七号火箭仅电连接器防水部位就有千余处,这还不包含电缆本体、电缆进出口、仪器本体、仪器与结构缝隙和结构总体专业防水,防水工作量之大可见一斑。

  可抗8级风

  文昌航天发射场有“浅层风”,给长征七号火箭垂直转场带来挑战。

  中国航天科技集团一院长征七号运载火箭总设计师程堂明说,“为了提升抗风能力,大家给长征七号火箭装上了‘防风减载装置’,这样一来,即使遇到8级大风天气,火箭依旧可以转场。”

  一般情况下,陆地上最大的风级为9级,气象学上,8级以上的风便达到“大风”级别。每年8月至11月,文昌发射场会受到强热带风暴和台风影响,由于临海,风速随着距地面高度的增加而越来越大。

  程堂明说,文昌发射场距地面五六十米高的地方的风速要远高于地面风速,大家将这种随距地面高度而变化的风称为“浅层风”。“地面感受到的是微风,火箭一级的地方可能就是‘大风’了。”

  长征七号火箭型号队伍为此对火箭局部结构进行了适当加强,并为火箭设计了一个“防风减载装置”。这套装置采用可伸展的桁架结构,一端固定在活动发射平台的脐带塔上,展开以后另一端与火箭二级发动机机架接头对接,这样在垂直转场过程中,将火箭与脐带塔连接起来,能够显著降低火箭受到的风载。

  程堂明说,有了“防风减载装置”,长征七号火箭便不怕“大风”天气,可全天候转场。

  中青报·中青网记者 邱晨辉 来源:中国青年报

【编辑:张楷欣】
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